Session 2: Environment, Public Policy and Regulation
Several changes in environmental policies and regulations have happened in Brazil in the past decade. Although commentators and protesters often use the term ‘environmental roll-back’ to describe these changes little research has been published on the actual nature and processes leading to these reforms. This session aims to fill in this gap and shed light on the actual characteristics and drivers of this recent trend.
Changes in Brazilian Environmental Regulations: Drivers, Processes and Results
Flavia Maria de Mattos Donadelli (LSE)
This work investigates the main reasons behind the marked changes that occurred in the regulation of three Brazilian environmental policy areas between 2005 and 2015. The policy areas under investigation are Forestry, in particular the approval of a new Forest Code in 2012; Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, specifically the new 2015 law on the topic (Lei 13.123/2015); and Pesticides, in particular, regulatory changes concerning the registration and use of new products. In order to assess the reasons for regulatory change in these three areas, this work explores the role of the four causal factors advanced in the ACF – external events, internal events, learning and negotiated agreement – and assesses them in relation to the to the particularities of the Brazilian institutional context. It does so through process-tracing of each sector’s history and content analysis of arguments proffered in National Congress debates, interviews with key actors and in the national media
Flavia Donadelli is a Teaching Fellow in Public Policy and Administration in the Department of Government at London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) since 2016. She pursued her PhD in Political Science at LSE and is also part of the Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation (CARR) in the same institution. Her research focuses on public policies and administrative reforms in developing countries and on changes in environmental policies and regulations in Brazil. During her PhD, she focused on Brazilian regulatory changes in the areas of forests, access to genetic resources and pesticides.
Brazil’s Environmental Assessment Regime Under Scrutiny: Bills 2004-2016
Larissa Verri Boratti (ILARRAZ Advogados)
The paper seeks to appraise the legal reform proposals for Brazil’s environmental assessment (EA) regime currently under debate. Claims for the reform of Brazil’s EA regime are at the heart of developmental strategies in place due to conflicts over the development consent process for large-scale, high impact infrastructure projects (e.g. energy, logistics, urban infrastructure and services, and extractive industry). Despite the existing consensus among stakeholders (government, private sector, NGOs, and community groups) with regards to the need for a more efficient and coherent process, with harmonization of key aspects of the regulatory framework, as well as for reducing judicialization over non-compliance of procedural requirements, there is much disagreement about how to implement this. Debate has escalated recently. Nineteen reform proposals have been submitted to the Congress and one non-statutory amendment is under debate before the National Environmental Council. Proposals date back to 2004, however, most are from 2011 onwards, and, importantly, the texts that have become pivotal in negotiations date from 2015 and 2016. To explore this, the paper starts by tracing the linkages between Law and Development approaches and environmental law in Brazil, with a focus on development consent for major projects and EA. It then provides an overview of the literature on EA law and policy, prior to introducing key aspects of the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the paper identifies existing bills on EA from 2004 to 2016 and carries out analysis of the main proposed changes in light of the environmental law literature. The paper concludes that the currently limited scope of discussions in Brazil has lead stakeholders to advocate deregulation of procedural and administrative apparatus to allow for regulatory cost reduction, and, allegedly, to foster economic growth. However, a more fundamental concern has to do with EA regulatory goals, an aspect which is apparently absent in the legal reform on the table.
As a Brazilian qualified lawyer, Larissa has practiced litigation and legal consultancy in the private sector for more than ten years (specialising in environmental law, policy and regulation). She is also an environmental law lecturer and researcher. She holds a PhD from University College London, a Master degree from UFSC (Brazil) and an LLB from UFRGS (Brazil).
Place: King's College London, Strand, Old Committee Room
Date: October 6, 2017
Time: 13:13 - 15:00
One of the most used key words in academia all over the world nowadays is ‘interdisciplinarity’ or 'multidisciplinarity'. From call for papers and conferences, to Deans and rectors’ speeches and description of courses and modules, these words are almost omnipresent. However, problems generally appear when we need to translate these concepts into practice. Dr Vinínius Mariano de Carvalho will open the training by presenting guidelines to successfully explore different areas of expertise within research.
Taking the Amazon rainforest as a point of reference, Dr Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho will expose some of the historical views on colonisation and representation of nature. Subsequently, Grace Iara Souza will present a case study on the Amazonian colonisation through the setting of areas aside for environmental protection.
Questions concerning public policy and regulation in the environment-development debate will be addressed. The focus will be on the role of voluntary multi-stakeholder sustainability initiatives in the context of states with limited administrative capacity. Flavia Donadelli and Larissa Boratti will present a case study on private forest regulation in Latin America in order to stimulate an open debate about the role of alternative environmental governance mechanisms in developing countries.
Session 4: Governance, institutions and actors: the challenges of researching socio-environmental complexity
Dr Daanish Mustafa will give an overview on the theoretical and epistemological questions that arise in socio-environmental research, namely in what regards interplay of governance, institutions and actors. Tiago Freitas will present a case study from the Brazilian Amazon and Kay Phanthuwongpakdee a case study from Thailand.
Session 5: Natural resource management and gender: can pro-poor strategies work in a neo-liberal world?
Natural resources such as land, water and forests are of key importance to the livelihoods of very many people in the countries of the Global South. In many countries most people still live in rural areas and derive significant parts of their livelihoods from agriculture, livestock and fisheries as well as from timber and non-timber forest products. The management of these resources is thus of great significance both for reducing poverty and trying to attain improved sustainability in the use of the natural environment. During this session, Dr Deborah Potts will discuss some of these themes with particular reference to southern African societies, while Giovanna Grandoni will introduce the gendered implications of natural resource management in small rural communities in the Northeast of Brazil.
This session will provide an analysis of cultural, institutional and livelihood dimensions of Indigenous groups and traditional communities and how it can interact with the conservation agenda. Moreover it will present the recent evolution of international and national policies and rights of indigenous and riverine peoples, and explore its consequences on the analytical framework on human-environment interactions.
The local people right to the territory has been one of the major struggles when creating and implementing conservation and development policies throughout natural resource rich countries. Embedded in a conflict between different stakeholders and agendas, conducting research in and about such places require constant adaptation and persistence
This session will focus on research with indigenous peoples from an anthropological, environmental and economic perspective, and present the challenges of conducting fieldwork in indigenous territories in the Amazon.
The Socio-Ecological Systems (SES) Reading Group in the Department of Anthropology, UCL invite PhD students to come to our one-day student conference. This one-day postgraduate research conference seeks to bring research across both social/political and ecological/biophysical disciplines to share experiences together. The conference will explore themes in SES and sustainability, including multiple interactions and relations between people and ecosystems; political ecology of human-animal relations, customary modes of natural resource management and their conflict or complementarity with western ideas of management; community-based conservation and development approaches and factors influencing their outcomes; impacts of changes in land use, tenure, access and management on livelihoods; impacts of climate change on human well-being, ecosystems and wildlife; and integrative methodologies in understanding SES.
Given the planetary challenges we face, we urgently need to formulate more explicit projects of transformation and transition. The announcement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015 emphasises that making substantial changes using tried and tested models is unlikely to work. This paper discusses how we might move beyond the SDGs to formulate diverse pathways to future prosperity, and explains why many of the philosophical and practical ideas arising in the Global South offer innovative ways forward.